Genghis Khan, "Khan of Khans", was the great leader of Mongolians. At the end of 12th century, he united Mongolian tribes and challenged other powers to expand his huge Mongolian empire, which extended from South China to the Caspian Sea. In 1277, Khan attacked the West Xia Kingdom (presently Ningxia) and encountered strong resistance. He died of disease and age. The great emperor was later buried secretly according to Mongolian custom. It says that after the burial 2,000 men were slaughtered by some 800 soldiers who were in turn executed so that the location of the real tomb remains a secret.
Genghis Khan's Mausoleum, rebuilt in 1954, 185 kilometers south of Baotou, is a mausoleum, in which only his clothing is buried in memory of the great leader. The 5.5 hectares mausoleum includes three giant yurt halls which house coffins of the Khan, his wife, his son and his generals. There are four sacrifice ceremonies held annually to commemorate the great hero and leader of the Mongolian people. The ceremony, held on March 21st on lunar calendar, is the grandest. After the ceremony, horse racing, archery and wrestling are held as entertainment.
The total area of the Mausoleum is over 50, 000 sq. m. There's a spacious square at the front of the main hall. Two masts are set up on the square and the pattern of nine steeds was embroidered on the banner. It is said that that the patter is a symbol off flourishing and happiness. The hall is 26 meters in height and has a floor area of over 1500 square meters. There are two Mongolian tent-shaped tops of different sizes on the hall. Blue and yellow glazed tiles are laid on the hall, forming a traditional wave-shaped pattern. Upturned eaves, vermeil gate, and white marble mortar-engraved guard rail in front of the hall, stable granite base make the hall even more awful and solemn. The hall is composed of the front hall, rear hall, east and west halls and east and west corridors. The 5-meter-high Genghis Khan statue is worshipped in the front hall, three yellow silk Mongolian tents are in the front face of the rear hall, and the coffin of Genghis Khan and his three wives is laid inside. The coffin of Genghis Khan's fourth son Tuolei and his wife are laid in the east hall, the battle sword, saddle and sacrificial milk bucket are worshipped in the west hall.
Genghis Khan's Mausoleum has now been expanded to an area of 80 sq. km. There are such scenic spots as Central Square, Iron Horse and Golden Curtain, Euro-Asian Square, Mongolian Historical and Cultural Museum, Temporary Dwelling Palace of the Han Dynasty.